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jasmine cultivation

jasmine cultivation A BRIEF HISTORY Jasmine is a flower plant ornamental shrubs such as chronic trunked upright living. In Italy casablanca jasmine (Jasmine officinalle), called Spansish Jasmine planted in 1692 to make perfume. In 1665 in England cultivated white jasmine (J. sambac) which was introduced by Duke Casimo de 'Meici. In 1919 discovered jasmine J. parkeri in the Northwest region of India, then cultivated in Britain in 1923. In Indonesian jasmine name known by people all over the archipelago. Local names for jasmine is menuh (Bali), Meulu cut or Meulu China (Aceh), Menyuru (Banda), Melur (Gayo and Batak Karo), manduru (Manado), Mundu (Bima and Sumbawa) and Manyora (East) , and Malete (Madura). 
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Among the 200 species of jasmine that have been identified by botanists only about 9 common types of jasmine are cultivated and there are 8 types of jasmine potential to be used as an ornamental plant. Most types of jasmine grows wild in the forests because they have not revealed the economic and social potential. Jasmine plants include jasmine-melatian tribe or family Oleaceae. The position of the jasmine plant systematics / taxonomy plants are as follows:
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Spermatophyta
Subdivision: Angiospermae
Class: Dicotyledonae
Order: Oleales
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Jasminum
Species: Jasminum sambac (L) Ait W. ..
Types, varieties and traits important (characteristic) jasmine plant are as follows:

Jasmine sambac Air (white jasmine, flower of the nation)
Jasmine multiflora Andr (wild jasmine: jasmine gambier, poncosudo, Star Jasmine, J,. Pubescens willd).
Jasmine officinale (jasmine casablanca, Spanish Jasmine) is synonymous with J. floribundum = Jasmine   grandiflorum). shrubs as high as 1, 5 meters.
Rex Jasmine (Jasmine King, King Jasmine).
Dunn parkeri Jasmine (jasmine pot).
Mensyi Jasmine (Jasmine primulinum, jasmine pimrose).
Jasmine Sims revolutum (jasmine Italy)
Simplicifolium Jasmine (jasmine Australia, J. volibile, m. Stars)
Jasmine hybrid. Pink and fragrant flowers.
The type and Bed varietes in the island of Java, among others:

Jasmine. Sambac (Jasmine White), among other varieties: Maid of Orleans, Grand Duke of Tuscany, and Rose Pikeke Menur
Jasmine. multiflorum (Star Jasmine)
Jasmine officinale (jasmine Gambir) 

Useful as a jasmine flower sow, industrial materials perfume, cosmetics, perfumes, pharmaceuticals, decorate wreaths and tea mix ingredients or fragrances. 

In Indonesian jasmine plant propagation centers are concentrated in Central Java, especially in all district, Purbalingga and Tegal. 

5.1. Climate
Rainfall is 112-119 mm / month with 6-9 days of rain / month, and has a dry climate with 2-3 months and 

5-6 months wet.
Air temperature 28-36 degrees C during the day and night temperature 24-30 degrees C,
Air humidity (RH) which is suitable for the cultivation of 50-80%.
In addition to the development of the most suitable jasmine cultivation in the area gets enough sunlight. 

5.2. Growing Media
Jasmine plants generally thrive on soil type Podsolic Red Yellow (FMD), and andosol latosol.
Jasmine plants need soil to loamy sand texture, aeration and good drainage, fertile, friable, contains a lot of organic matter and have. The degree of acidity of the soil is good for growing these plants is pH = 5-7.

5.3. The Altitude
Jasmine plants can grow and produce well in the lowlands to the highlands at an altitude of 10-1600 m asl. However, each type of jasmine has its own adaptation to the environment is growing. White jasmine (J. sambac) is ideal planted in the lowlands to an altitude of 600 m above sea level, while Jasmine Star Jasmine (J.multiflorum) can adapt well to a height of 1,600 m above sea level. In the production of jasmine centrum, as in Tegal regency, Purbalingga and Pemalang (Central Java), jasmine grows well in lowland to highland medium (0-700 m asl). 


6.1. Nurseries
Seed Seeding Technique: Plug each seedling cuttings on medium 10-15 cm / one-third of the length of the cuttings. Close the container surface seedbed with plastic sheets clear (transparent) in order to keep the air moist.
Seeding Maintenance / Seeding
Preparation of nursery places:
Prepare a place / container seedlings a large pot / polybag, seedling medium (a mixture of soil, sand sterile / clean).
Check the bottom of the container nursery and give a small hole for the disposal of excess water.
Fill medium seedlings into containers until quite full / 20-30 cm thick. Seedling medium flush with clean water until damp.
Maintenance seedlings cuttings:
Perform continuous watering 1-2 times a day.
Keep the cuttings seed gets morning sun.
Move seedlings cuttings that have rooted sufficiently strong (aged 1-23 months) into a polybag containing growth medium mixture of soil, sand and organic fertilizer (1:1:1).
Maintain intensive jasmine seeds (watering, fertilizing and spraying pesticides low dose) to 3-month-old seedlings. 

6.2. Media Processing Plant
Land Opening
Clean the location for the jasmine garden of weeds (weeds), useless trees / rocks for easy management of the land.
Tillage in the manner hoe / plowed as deep as 30-40 cm until crumbly, then let it air dry for 15 days
Formation of Beds: Shaping 100-120 cm wide beds, 30-40 cm high, the distance between the beds 40-60 cm and a length adapted to land conditions.
Liming: Soil pH is acidic which can be improved through liming, for example with lime calcite (CaCO3) {dolomite CaMg (CO3) 2}, lime grilled (Quick lime, CaO) / lime hydrate (lime Slakked, {Ca (OH) 2 }. functionality / usability is liming acid soils to raise the pH of the soil, as well as to add the elements Ca and Mg.
Fertilization: Spread manure over the soil surface, then mix evenly with a layer of top soil. Manure included in each planting hole as much as 1-3 kg. Manure doses ranged from 10-30 tonnes / hectare. Planting hole made size 40 x 40 x 40 cm with a distance between holes of 100-150 cm. Land preparation should be done in the spring kemarau/1-2 months before the rainy season.
6.3. Planting Techniques

Determination of Cropping Pattern: A month before planting, seeds adapted jasmine used around the garden. Garden soil ready for planting base fertilizer consists of 3 grams of TSP plus 2 grams of KCI per plant. When each contained approximately 60,000 hectares planting holes (spacing of 1.0 mx 1.5 m), consisting of a basic fertilizer needs 180 kg TSP and 120 kg KCI. Together with the basic fertilizer can be added "pembenah and soil stabilizer" for example Agrovit, Stratos / humus acid Gro-Mate
Hole Making Plant: in polybag seedlings watered jasmine growing medium and roots. Each planting hole of the seedlings planted jasmine. Land near the base of the seedling stem jasmine solidified slowly so their roots in direct contact with groundwater.
Planting Method: Plant spacing can vary, depending on the shape of culture cultivation, soil fertility and planted jasmine types, shapes culture plantation spacing is generally 1 x 1.5 m, while the other variation is 40 x 40 cm, 40 x 25 cm and 100 x 40 cm.
6.4. Plant Maintenance

Thinning and Stitching. : How replanting is to replace dead plants / herbs abnormal with new seedlings. Stitching techniques are the same with the planting of governance, it's just done on location / block / seedlings planting hole needs to be replaced. Replanting period should be no more than one month after planting. Stitching aiming as early as possible in order not to complicate the next planting and maintenance of plant growth becomes uniform. Time replanting should be done in the morning / afternoon, when the sun is not too hot and the air temperature is not too hot.
Weeding: At the age of one month after planting, garden jasmine is often overgrown with weeds (weeds). This weed competitor jasmine plants in meeting the needs sunlight, water and nutrients.
Fertilization: Fertilization jasmine plant performed every three months. The type and dosage of fertilizer used consisted of 300-700 kg urea, KCI STP 300-500 kg and 100-300 kg / ha / year. Fertilizer can be done by distributed evenly in the trenches in between the rows of plants / plant canopy around 10-15 cm deep, then covered with soil. Fertilization can also be a way to enter the fertilizer into the drill holes around the jasmine plant canopy. When fertilizing is before pruning, flowering time, according to the current crop of flowers and less vibrant growth. Fertilizer can increase the production of jasmine, especially the type of fertilizer that is rich in phosphorus (P), as Gandasil B (6-20-30) / blue Hyponex (10-40-15) and time of foliar fertilizer spraying done in the morning (09.00 ) or afternoon (15:30 to 16:30 pm) or when the sun is not scorching sting.
Irrigation and Watering: In the early phase of growth, jasmine plants need adequate water availability. Watering needs to be continuously each day until the plant was about 1 month. Watering is done 1-2 times a day ie in the morning and evening. How water is clean with IAR watered each plant until the soil around the roots moist enough.
Time Spraying Pesticide: Substances stimulating / Growing regulators (PGR) can be used to maintain and increase flower production, flower aphrodisiac affecting both the flowering jasmine is Cycocel (Chloromiguat) and Etherel. Jasmine plants sprayed with 5000 ppm concentration Cycocel deliver the highest interest yield, ie 1.45 kg / plant. Method of administration: aphrodisiac flower is sprayed on the entire plant, especially the ends and flowering shoots. Recommended concentration of 3,000 ppm to 5,000 ppm-Cycocel or 500-1500 ppm when used Ethrel.
Other: Plants generally grow jasmine creeper, except on some kind of budget, such as the Grand Duke of Tuscany varieties which grow upright type. High pruning is very dependent on the type of jasmine, white jasmine type (J.sambac) can prune at a height of 75 cm from the soil surface, whereas type Spnish Jasmine jasmine (J. officinale var. Grandiflorum) as high as 90 cm from the soil surface.
Jasmine plants are not spared from pests and diseases, the basic principles and priorities pest control technology / disease.

Biological control is done by utilizing the maximum pest natural enemies (parasitoids, perdator, pathogens) by:
enter, maintain, reproduce, releasing natural enemies
reducing the use of synthetic organic pesticides wide spectrum / using selective pesticides.
Agricultural ecosystems are managed in a manner:
use of healthy seed
field sanitation
balanced fertilization
Good crop rotation
use of trap crops,
Pesticides used selectively based on the results of the monitoring and analysis of ecosystems. 

7.1. Pest
Caterpillars palpita (Palpita unionalis Hubn):
These pests include the order Lepidoptera and the family Pyralidae, Stadium pests that damage crops was jasmine larvae (caterpillars).
Control: is done by cutting the weight of the affected plants and spraying insecticides and sangkil mangkus, eg Decis 2.5 EC, Perfekthion 400 E / Curacron 500 EC.
Flower borer (Hendecasis duplifascials):
These pests include the order Lepidoptera and the family Pyralidae.
Symptoms: attack by way of broaching jasmine plant / flower punch that failed to bloom. Flowers are attacked become damaged and sometimes secondary infection by fungus to cause rotting flowers.
Control: mangkus sprayed with insecticides, such as Decis 2.5 EC, 50 EC Cascade / L Lannate.
Thips (Thrips sp):
Including the order Thysanoptera Thrips and family Thripidae. These pests are predators of all types of plants (polifag).
Symptoms: attack by sucking the liquid surface of the leaf, especially young leaves (shoots).
Control: is done by reducing the variety of types of host plants around the garden jasmine and spraying insecticides mangkus: WP Mesurol 50, Pegasus 500 SC / Dicarzol 25 SP.
Peudococcus scales (Psuedococcus longispinus):
These pests include the order Homoptera Pseudococcidae and families that live in groups on the surface of the leaf stalk shoots and bottom to resemble scales gray or yellowish.
Symptoms: attack plants by sucking plant cell fluids and fluid dispensing honey.
Control: performed by spraying insecticides mangkus, for example Bassa 500 EC / Nogos 50 EC.
Caterpillars nausinoe (Nausinoe geometralis):
These pests include the order Lepidoptera and the family Pyralidae.
Feature: brown moth with an average body length of 12 mm and a length of approximately a wing span of 24 mm and a brown speckled transparent.
Symptoms: attack the leaves of jasmine plants identical (same) with P. unionalis worm attack.
Other Pests. :
Another pest is often found mealybug (Dialeurodes citri) and mite shell (scale insects). Flocking attached to the branches, twigs, and shoots of the jasmine plants, attacked by sucking the fluid cell, so that the process of photosynthesis (metabolism).
Control is done by spraying insecticides mangkus, as Perfekthion 400 EC / Decis 2.5 EC. 

7.2. Disease
Leaf blight:
Cause: The fungus (mushroom) Rhizcotonia solani Kuhn.
Symptoms: attack the leaves are located near the soil surface.
Hawar thread (Thread Blight):
Cause: The fungus Marasmiellus scandens (Mass.).
Symptoms: attack the branches of jasmine plants.
Flower blight (Flower Blight):
Cause: The fungus (mushroom) Curvularia sp. Fusarium and Phoma sp sp.
Symptoms: flowers rot, brown and sometimes fall flowers.
Mushrooms policeman:
Cause: The fungus Capnodium salmonicolor. This disease attacks the stems and branches of woody plants jasmine.
Symptoms: decomposition covered by a layer of pink fungus on infected plant parts apnodium sp. and Meliola jasmini Hansf. et Stev. Symptoms capnodium upper surface of the leaf is covered with black sooty mold evenly.
Leaf spots:
Cause: The fungus Pestaloita sp.
Symptoms: patches of brown to blackish on the leaves.
Leaf rust (Rust):
Cause: parasitic green algae (Cephaleuros virescens Kunze).
Symptoms: on the surface of affected leaves patchy reddish-merahaan and fluffy. This disease primarily affects older leaves.
Cause: The fungus Colletotrichum gloesporoides.
Symptoms: tiny spots formed blackish color. The spots enlarged and elongated pink, especially on the leaves. Severe attacks can cause dead end (die back).
Other diseases:
Rotten flowers by Erwinia bacteria tumafucuens. Nodule by nematodes Meloidogyne incognito, abnormilitas causes plant roots. The virus causes stunted plant growth inhibition of jasmine, mottled leaves and sometimes entire branches and shoots become stiff. 


8.1. Characteristics and Harvest
The characteristics of jasmine flowers that have been harvested time is already large flower size (maximum) and still buds / half bloom. Jasmine production in Indonesia is still low which ranged between 20-25 kg / ha / day. Jasmine plants begin flowering at the age of 7-12 months after planting. Jasmine harvest can be done throughout the year in many times to plant age between 5-10 years. Every year flowering jasmine plants generally lasts for 12 weeks (3 months).
8.2. How to Harvest
Jasmine flower plucking should be done in early afternoon, when the sun is not too hot / not too hot temperatures.
8.3. Harvest Period
Most jasmine harvest ranges between 1-2 weeks. Furthermore, the production rate will be decreased and then increased again 2 months
8.4. Production Forecast
Jasmine flower production is usually highest during the rainy season, in Central Java, jasmine harvest in the dry season produces 5-10 kg / ha, while the harvest in the rainy season reaches 300-1.000kg/ha. Data jasmine production in Indonesia ranges from 1.5-2 tonnes / ha / yr in the rainy season and 0.7-1 tonnes / ha / yr in the dry season.
9. Postharvest
9.1. Collection
Jasmine flowers in the open will quickly wither to maintain / extend the freshness of flowers were laid in a winnowing tray lined plastic sheet is then stored in the cold room temperature between 0-5 degrees C.
9.2. Others
One of the products of post-harvest processing of jasmine flowers is Jasmine Oil.
Special jasmine oil, the oil extracted from jasmine flowers with petroleum ether solvent, as the raw material of high quality perfume.
Regular jasmine oil, which is oil extracted from jasmine flowers with benzole solvent, as a raw material quality perfume was.
Special pomade oil, oil that is obtained with jasmine enfleurage techniques, hair oil as a raw material.
Oil pomade usual, the oil extracted from jasmine flowers enfleurage former, as technical deodorizer.
Enfleurage technique called smear technique. The working principle of jasmine flower extract the smear technique is as follows:
Apply grease on the surface of thin glass muri.
Put the jasmine flowers are still fresh (new quotes) above the surface of the glass.
Save the thin glass with jasmine flowers in storage shelves made of plastic, wood / stainless metal.
Let jasmine flowers for 3-4 days until the flowers wilted.
Jasmine flowers that had wilted immediately discarded to be replaced with new flowers / still fresh.
Do it this way would be repeated for 2-3 months until the fat filled jasmine perfume.
Jasmine oil extraction technique can be done by using a hollow tube.

Put fresh jasmine flowers into the tube, then circulate solvent (alcohol, ether, chlorofrom, ecetone, pure fat, petroleum ether) on an ongoing basis.
Distributes fluid extracts containing solvent and jasmine flower elements into the vacuum tubes is heated to evaporate the solvent modest. Diallirkan solvent vapor back into a liquid to the condenser in order.
Add ethanol to the element of jasmine flowers. Elements of jasmine flowers is usually a solid wax (concrete) that still contain dyes, resins and other elements that do not evaporate.
Mix the oil with alcohol was then filtered again to remove the resin content.
Do the absolute distillation using glycol sthlene irradiation with UV light to eliminate dyes.

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