bean cultivation

In recent years many requests both within and outside the country , where demand has not been met . Long beans are also promoted as a source of protein and minerals . Thus these vegetables attract the attention of consumers who understand the meaning of the nutritional value and quality of food .Sentra planting beans in Indonesia is dominated by Java , especially West Java , Central Java , East Java , South Sulawesi , DI Aceh , North Sumatra , Lampung and Bengkulu .Chickpea plants botanical classification is as follows :a) Division : Spermathophytab ) Sub-Division : Angiospermaec ) Class : Dycotyledoneaed ) Order : Leguminalese ) Family: Papiolinaceaef ) Genus : Vignag ) Species : Vigna spp .These plants form root nodules are fixing nitrogen , so fertilizer N to the crop may be reduced .Species commonly cultivated beans , among others :



    
Vine -type beans ( V. sinensis var . Sesquipedalis ) which we know as regular beans . Varieties grown are high yielding varieties KP1 and KP2 , local varieties Navan , no Cikole 1494 , Subang , Super Subang , Subang green Guts etc. .
    
Long beans upright type ie cowpea / tolo / dadap / broom ( V. unguiculata L. ) , and peanut uci / Ondel ( V. umbellata ) . Improved varieties is kt1 , KT2 , KT3 .
    
Chickpea hybrids ( V. sinensis ssp . Hybridus ) bushitao nutty . No varieties are released . 10 / a , 12 / a , 13 / a , 14 / a , 17 / a , 18 / a and EG BS / 2 .GROWTH CONDITIONSclimatea) The temperature ideally between 20-30 degrees C.b ) The open ( full sunlight ) .c ) The climate is dry , rainfall between 600-1500 mm / year .Growing Mediaa) Almost all types of land suitable for the cultivation of beans, but it is best to Latosol soil / sandy loam , fertile , friable , contains a lot of organic matter and good drainage .b ) Soil acidity ( pH ) of approximately 5.5-6.5 . When the pH is too alkaline ( above pH 6.5 ) led to the outbreak of root nodules .The altitudeThese plants grow and produce well in the lowlands and highlands of ± 1500 m above sea level , but most good in the lowlands . Planting in the highlands , harvesting is relatively longer than the time of planting , production and productivity levels lower when compared to the lowlands . Optimum height is less than 800 m above sea level .FARMING TECHNIQUES EFFECTIVENurseriesSeed requirementsSeed beans are good and quality is as follows : Appearance pithy / dull , high germination rate above 85 % , no damaged / defective , does not contain outbreaks of pests and diseases . Purposes seed for 1 hectare of between 15-20 kg .Seed preparationThe seeds should not be planted specifically , but planting seeds directly in the planting hole that has been prepared .Soil treatmentformation BedsLand cleared of weeds , hoeing / plowed as deep as 30 cm to the soil becomes loose . Create a moat around, let the soil dry for 15-30 days . After 30 days make beds with a width of 60-80 cm , the distance between beds of 30 cm , height 30 cm , depending on the length of the land . For mound system wide basis over the 30-40 cm and 30-50 cm wide , 30 cm high and 30-40 cm distance between the mounds .Planting techniquesDetermination of Planting PatternPlanting hole spacing for the type of vines is 20 x 50 cm , 40 x 60 cm , 30 x 40 cm . Good planting time is early dry season / beginning of the rainy season , but throughout the season can be the origin of the soil water is adequate .How PlantingSeeds inserted into the planting hole as much as 2 seeds , cover with a thin soil / ash kitchen .Plant maintenancestitchingBean seeds will grow 3-5 days later . Seeds that do not grow immediately embroidered .weedingWeeding is done at 2-3 weeks old plants after planting , depending on the growth of grass in the garden . Weeding by way of pulling weeds / cleaning with tools kored .Pruning / PerempalanLong beans are too dense leaves and trimming needs to be held end of the rod . Plants that are too dense to inhibit the growth of flowers .fertilization

    
fertilizer Basics

    
Fertilizer is given in the manure pit located on either side of the planting hole . The amount of fertilizer given to a plant depends on soil conditions , long beans should not use enough fertilizer urea but Za 50 / ha NPK kg and 100 kg / ha .
    
Supplementary fertilizer
    
Supplementary fertilizer plant vine -type beans , administered 4 weeks after planting , fertilizers such as NPK 100 kg / ha .irrigationIn the initial phase of growth of the seed to young plants , watering is done regularly every day . The next irrigation season dependent .Pests and Diseasespest



    
Bean fly ( Ophiomya phaseoli Tryon )
    
Symptoms : There are white spots around the veins , the affected plants stunted growth and yellowish leaves , stem occurs secondary roots and swollen . Control : crop rotation in a way that is not from the family of nuts and giving G regent at the time of planting beans .
    
Aphids ( Aphis cracivora Koch )
    
Symptoms : delayed growth due to pests suck fluids plant cells and decreased yields . Lice clustered at the top of the plant and act as viral vectors . Control : with crop rotation with crops not family nuts and spraying with
    
Armyworm ( Spodoptera litura F. )
    
Symptoms : leaf perforated with uncertain size , heavy attack in the dry season , also attack pods . Control : with peraikan technical culture , crop rotation , planting unison , chemical pest traps and insecticides virtako .
    
Grain borer ( Callosobruchus maculatus L )
    
Symptoms : seeds marred with holes , crushed to 90 % . Control : by cleaning and wiping out the remnants of plant pests hiding place . Chickpea seeds treated with corn oil 10 cc / kg of seed .
    
Caterpillars interest ( Maruca testualis )
    
Symptoms: The larvae attack the flowers that were open , then eat the pods . Control : with crop rotation and maintain a healthy garden from plant remains . Sprayed with insecticide proclaim .disease

    
antraknose
    
Cause: The fungus Colletotricum lindemuthianum . Symptoms : attack can be observed in berkecamabah new seedlings , a kind of cancer is brown on the stem and seed pieces . Control : crop rotation , seed treatment before planting with a fungicide Dithane M - 45
    
mosaic disease
    
The cause : a virus Cowpea Aphid Borne Viruses / CaMV . Symptoms : young leaves on the evidence shows irregular mosaic of color . The disease is transmitted by aphid vectors . Control : by using healthy seed and virus free , sprayed with insecticide effective for aphids and plants attacked and burned revoked .
    
broom disease
    
Cause : Witches - broom virus Cowpea Virus / Cowpea Stunt Virus . Symptoms : stunted plant growth , the joints ( the books ) are very short stems , and axillary buds shortened form " broom " . Aphids transmitted diseases . Control : same with mosaic disease control .
    
bacterial wilt
    
Cause: The bacterium Pseudomonas solanacearum E.F. Smith. Symptoms : sudden wilting plants and heavy attacks cause plants to die . Control : crop rotation , drainage improvements and remove dead plants .harvestCharacteristics and HarvestHarvest beans distinguished two kinds , namely young pods and pod harvest old or seeds 


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    Harvest young pods
    
The characteristics of the pods are ready for harvest is the maximum size of the pods have been , easily broken and the seeds in the pods do not stand out the most excellent harvest time in the morning / afternoon. Age of plants ready for harvest 3.5-4 months
    
Harvest pods old
    
The characteristics of cowpea pods are ready for harvest were already quite old - pods , seeds and skin protruding beyond the green and yellow . Harvesting 3-3.5 months and harvest time in the morning / afternoon.How to HarvestHow to harvest the bean crop types propagate by cutting the fruit stalk with a sharp knife . As for the type of nut saplings upright by pulling / cutting the base of the stem of the plant height of 10-15 cm from the ground .

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