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durian cultivation ( Bombaceae sp . )

1 . A BRIEF HISTORYDurian ( Bombaceae sp . ) Is a tree fruit crops . The term durian comes from the term Malay thought to which of the given word thorn suffix -an to be durian . The word is mainly used to refer to sharp spiny fruit skin . Durian comes from the forests of Malaysia , Sumatra , and Borneo in the form of wild plants . Westward spread of durian is to Thailand , Burma , India and Pakistan . Durian fruit has been known in Southeast Asia since the 7th century AD Another name durian is durian ( Java , Gayo ) , duriang ( Manado ) , dulian ( Toraja ) , rulen ( East Seram ) .

2 . TYPES OF PLANTSBombaceae durian including family - kapukan countrymen kapok tree . Durian is commonly known plants of the genus ( genus ) Durio , Nesia , Lahia , Boschia and Coelostegia . There are dozens of durian is acknowledged by the Minister of Agriculture and disseminated to the community to be developed . Kinds of durian varieties are: durian Breadfruit ( Central Java ) , Petruk ( Central Java ) , Sitokong ( Betawi ) , Simas ( Bogor ) , Sunan ( Jepara ) , Montong ( Thailand ) , Kani ( Thailand ) , Sidodol( South Kalimantan ) , Sijapang ( Betawi ) and Sihijau ( South Kalimantan ) .

3 . BENEFIT PLANTBenefits durian apart as fresh fruit and processed food other , there is the benefit of other parts , namely :1 ) The plants for the prevention of erosion on sloping lands .2 ) The trunk for building materials / home furnishings . Durian wood sengon level with wood because the wood tends to be straight .3 ) The seeds which have a fairly high starch content , potentially as an alternative to food ( can be made pureed fruit mixed meat ) .4 ) The skin is used as a nice ash , with . how sun dried and burned to pieces .

4 . PLANTING CENTERIn Indonesia , the durian plants in all parts of Java and Sumatra . While in Kalimantan and Irian Jaya are generally only found in the forest , along the river . In the world , durian spread throughout Southeast Asia , from Sri Lanka , South India and New Guenea . Special in Southeast Asia , durian cultivated in the form of intensive plantation maintained by the Thai state .Number of durian production in the Philippines is 16,700 tons ( 2,030 ha ) , in Malaysia to 262,000 tonnes ( 42,000 ha ) and in Thailand 444 500 tonnes ( 84,700 ha ) in the year 1987-1988 . In Indonesia the same year produce 199 361 tons ( 41,284 ha ) in 1990 and produce 275 717 tonnes ( 45 372 ha ) .

5 . TERMS OF GROWTH5.1 . climate1 ) Rainfall for maximum durian 3000-3500 mm / year and a minimum of 1500-3000 mm / year . Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year , with drought 1-2 months before flowering is better than continuous rain .2 ) The intensity of sunlight is needed durian is 60-80 % . While still small ( Newly planted in the garden ) , durian can not stand the sun in the dry season , so the seedlings should be protected / shaded .3 ) Plants suitable durian at an average temperature of 20-30 degrees C. At a temperature of 15oC durian can grow but the growth is not optimal . When the temperature reaches 35 degrees C the leaves will burn .5.2 . Growing Media1 ) durian plants require fertile soil ( soil rich in organic matter ) . Particle preparation of balance between sand clay soil and dust so easily form crusts .2 ) Land suitable for durian is the type of soil and ondosol grumosol . Land which has the characteristics of a grayish black color dark , topsoil structure bebutir - grain , while the bottom clotted , and high water binding capability .3 ) The degree of soil acidity is desired durian ( pH ) 5-7 , with optimum pH 6-6.5 .4 ) Plant durian including the annual plant with roots , it requires into the soil water content with enough , ( 50-150 cm ) and ( 150-200 cm ) . If the depth of the ground water is too shallow / deep, sweet fruit flavors not / will plant drought / root rot due to always flooded .5.3 . The altitudeAltitude for planting durian should not be more than 800 m above sea level . But there is also a suitable durian planted in various heights . Hilly land / the slope is less than 15, less practical than flat flat land .

6 . RAISING GUIDELINES6.1 . Nurseries1 ) Requirements SeedSeeds were selected from seed to seed that meets the following requirements:a) First of its parent .b ) Fresh and old .c ) Not shriveled .d ) not attacked by pests and diseases .2 ) Preparation of Seeds and SeedlingsPernanyakatan durian can be done through a generative way ( with seeds ) or vegetative ( grafting , breastfeeding or cxangkokan ) .a) Procurement of seeds by generativeChoosing seeds genuine / pure performed by washing the seeds in order for the meat fruit stick regardless . Selected seeds are dried in the open , not in direct sunlight . Storage endeavored to prevent germination / growth of damaged and deteriorated power . Seed ripening process is done properly ( by way of resting a few moments ) , within a period of 2-3 weeks after taken from the fruit . Once the seed is planted .b ) Procurement of seedlings by graftingRequirements to be grafted durian seeds derived from healthy seeds and old , from the parent plant healthy and fertile , good root system and prolific . Seeds were grown , selected the perfect growth . After 8-10 months of age , can be grafted , by the way :1 . Under the bark is cut , just above the eyes ( ± 1 cm ) . Selected buds within 20 cm of the soil surface .2 . Transverse incision is made , the skin peeled down along 2-3 cm so similar tongue .3 . Leather -like tongue cut into 2/3-nya .4 . Inserts " eye " which is taken from the mother plant to the stem ( sliced ​​shaped shield ) between the skin . After completion of grafting , 2 weeks later in eyeshade check whether or not the green shoots . When it is green , it means that grafting is successful, if the chocolate , then grafting fails .c ) Breastfeeding1 . Model puncture / implant- Crop top trunk candidates split half moving towards the bud . Cleavage between 1-1.5 cm in length measured from the top . Plant rootstock candidates should have a diameter equal to the upper trunk . Editorial candidate rootstock is cut and removed, then sliced ​​up pointy . Part of the pointed rod inserted above candidates go to a part that has been prepared . So potential rootstock is not easily separated , the connections should be tied tightly with rope .- During the breastfeeding period stems should not be shifted together .Thus, the plant rootstock should be supported or tied to the parent plant ( large plant stems ) so as not to waver after grafting . Dairy products should be watered in order to stay alive . Usually , after 3-6 months the plant can be separated from the mother plant , depending on the age of the plant stems disusukan . Young plants are already hard wood can not be separated after 3 months . Splicing stab or implant models can be more successful if applied on a young plant stems or not hardwood .2 . Model incision- Select candidate rootstocks ( seedlings ) and top candidate of the parent tree trunk that has been fruitful and the same magnitude .- Both the stem is cut a little until the wood parts . The incision on both rods aligned to the same shape and magnitude .- After the second rod is cut , then the two rods were affixed right on the incision and tied so that they will grow together .- After 2-3 weeks , before the connection can be seen in the results if the scions and rootstocks could actually grow together mean that breastfeeding successfully .- If the connection is successful , the rootstock shoots cut / removed, bud scions allowed to flourish. If the stem above the bud growth has been perfect , well above the base of the stem is cut .- There will be trunk underneath durian seeds are seeds of plants , while the upper stem of the twig / branch mature durian tree .d ) The graftsStem grafted durian should be selected from branch plants healthy , fertile , quite old , never bear fruit , have a branching arrangement of lush , large branches no bigger than your thumb ( diameter = 2-2.5 cm ) , skin is brownish green . Time grafting is the beginning of the rainy season , so avoid drought , or dry season , but should be watered on a regular basis ( 2 times a day ) , morning and evening . The grafting procedures are as follows :1 . Select durian branch of your thumb and the color of his skin was brownish green .2 . The branch wing skin so that the skin around the branches apart .3 . Clean slime scraped manner then let it dry winds of up to two days .4 . Section incision is wrapped with graft media ( soil , peat fiber , mos ) . If using ground add manure / compost ratio of 1:1 . Media grafts wrapped with plastic / coconut fiber / other materials , both ends were tied so that the media does not fall .5 . Around 2-5 months , root out graft will penetrate wrapping grafts . If there are enough roots , grafts can be cut and planted in the nursery basket containing medium fertile soil .3 ) Seeding Technique and MaintenanceDurian seedlings should not be planted directly in the field , but first planted nursery place . Durian seeds that have been cleared of air-dried pulp to dry no water stuck . Germinated seeds were planted in the nursery before or directly planted inpolybags . The trick dideder seeds in plastic / bamboo / box , with media 1:1 soil and sand stirred evenly . The thickness of the soil layer is about 2 times larger seeds ( 6-8 cm ) , then the planting medium was watered but ( should not be too wet ) , the temperature of the media pursued quite moist ( 20-23 degrees C ) . seedplanted on his side face down ( part of the candidates taproot attached to the ground ) , and some are still visible above the soil surface ( 3/4 sections still to be visible ) . The distance between one another seed is 2 cm longitudinal and transverse 4-5 cm . Once the seed is immersed , then sprayed with a fungicide solution , then closed the box next to the top of the plastic so the humidity stable . After 2-3 weeks the seeds will be issued with a covering root root directly into the media ± 3-5 cm in length . When the plastic lid can be opened . Subsequently , the seeds were grown readyraised in seedbeds or polybags enlarger .4) Change of SeedSeedlings should be planted in the field has grown as high as 75-150 cm or aged 7-9 months after grafted , healthy condition and good growth . This is reflected in the strong growth of the stem , the roots are many and strong , also the presence of the leaf blade near the top of the plants that have beenthickened and dark green color .6.2 . Media Processing Plant1 ) PreparationPlanting durian , need careful planning . Things to consider is the measurement of soil pH , soil analysis , timing / schedule of planting , watering , planting acreage determination , production volume settings .2 ) Land OpeningCleaning and land preparation done a few weeks before planting takes place . Large stones , reeds , and basic logging residual trees removed . It should be cleared of weeds that will interfere with growth .3 ) Establishment of BedsLand for enlargement seedbed must first dug as deep as 30 cm to be loose , then mixed with sand and finished compost . To measure the width of beds 1 m length of 2 m , given 5 kg 5 kg of sand and compost . Once the soil , sand and compost evenly mixed and left for 1 week . At that time the land was also sprayed Vapan / Basamid to prevent fungal attack / decay fungi bacteria . Around the beds , need to be made to channel the water reservoir . ifbeds were prepared , the seeds that have grown roots was immediately planted at a spacing of 20 x 30 cm . Planting seeds of durian is done in a way made ​​for seed planting hole according to the length and depth of each root . After all the seeds planted , the surface of bedssprinkled with sand mixed with finely ground ( sifting ) thickness of 5 cm .4 ) LimingThe state of infertile soil , for example podzolic soil ( red yellow ) and latosol ( red - brown - yellow ) , which tend to have a pH 5-6 and drafting less balanced between the content of sand , clay and dust , can be overcome by liming . Should be done before the dry season , with agricultural lime which had levels up to 90 % CaCO3 . Two to 4 weeks prior to liming , soil should be fertilized once and dilsiram 4-5 times . To prevent the elements Mg deficiency in the soil , preferably two weeks after liming , plus dolomite immediately .6.3 . Planting techniques1 ) Determination of Plant PatternSpacing depends on the type and soil fertility , durian cultivars , as well as the applied cultivation system . For genjah durian cultivars , spacing : 10 mx 10 m . While the old durian cultivars being and the spacing of 12 mx 12 m . Intensification durian orchard , especially when seedlings of durian still small ( less than 6 years old ) , can be achieved by intercropping cultivation . Various intercropping cultivation is usually done with the Horti crops ( chilli , tomato , eggplant and food crops : upland rice , soybean , peanut and sweet potato .2 ) Hole Making PlantSoil cultivation is mainly done in the hole that will be used to plant the seeds of durian . Prepared planting hole 1 m x 1 m x 1 m . When digging holes , divided into two dugouts . Collected in the upper left of the hole , dugouts were collected in the lower right of the hole . Planting hole left to dry terangin - wind for ± 1 week , then planting hole closed. Dugouts upper first entered after mixed compost 35 kg / hole , followed by the bottom of the soil has been mixed 35 kg of manure and 1 kg of phosphate . To avoid disturbance of termites , ants and other pests can be mixed granular insecticide like Furadan 3 G. Further planting hole be filled to look a hill as high as 20-30 cm from the ground . Land does not need to be compacted . Hole closure should be performed 7-15 days before planting seedlings .3 ) How PlantingSeedlings to be planted in the ground should grow 75-150 cm long, healthy condition , good growth , which is reflected in the solid stem and roots are many and strong . Covered pits excavated soil back to a smaller size , by clumps of soil that wrap around the roots of seedlings of durian . Once the hole is available , planting in the following manner :a) Poly bag / wrapper seeds removed ( side cut / sliced ​​carefully)b ) The seed is placed into the planting hole to limit neckc ) The hole covered with soil excavation . On the plant side marker given that the growth of the plant upright in the direction marker .d ) Lists of seeds covered grass / hay as mulch , then drenched with water .e ) On top seed shade can be constructed of thatch or other materials . This shade as the protector so that the plants do not wilt or dry stung direct sunlight .6.4 . Plant maintenance1 ) Spacing and StitchingThinning fruit durian aims to prevent death in order not to spend energy to the process of fertilization . Spacing effect on survival , the taste of fruit , fruit size and frequency of fertilization each year . Thinning process is done simultaneously with the abortion of flowers , so autumn flowers finish , thinning should be done the next day ( not to be ditundatunda ) . Thinning can be done by spraying certain hormones ( Auxin A ) , at the time of flower or fruit will be a month old . At that time most of the interest is already open and has been fertilized . When hormones sprayed , fertilized flowers will remain continue conception while interestwhich have not been fertilized will die by itself . Number of durian fruit thinned ± 50-60 % of the existing fruit .2 ) WeedingTo avoid competition between plants and grasses surrounding during growth , weeding needs to be done ( ± 1 m diameter of the tree durian ) .3 ) Trimming / Perempelana) The roots of durianCutting the roots will inhibit the vegetative growth of the plants and 40 % for ± 1 season . During that time, the plant is not pruned . Pruning the roots apart to make into a fast fruiting plants also improve fruit quality , attractive , fruit harder and more durable . Root pruning is best time when plants start flowering later than 2 weeks after flowering . If you do cross the line , reduced yields and stunted growth . How cutting : both sides of the row of sliced ​​durian as far as deep as 60-90 cm and 1.5-2 meters from the base of the stem .b ) RejuvenationPlants that are old and less productive needs to be rejuvenated . Durian does not have to be demolished down to its roots , but quite done trimming . Trimmings wound sloped so that rainwater does not prevent infection tertahan.Untuk rods , these scars can be smeared or plastered marry paraffin wax . After 2-3 weeks done trimming ( in rainy season ) then the stem will grow new shoots . Once the new shoots reach 2 months , the shoots can be grafted . How grafting a branch together by grafting young trees ( seedlings ) . High grafting of soil ± 1 - 1,5 m or 2 to 2.5 m depending on the main stem cutting . Cutting the main stem should not be too close to the ground .c ) The establishment of the plant is already oldThe branches to be set up should not dililiti wire , but quite dibanduli or withdrawn and forced down so that plant growth is not pointing up . Branch will be established in order kalep wrapped with the uninjured limb . Wrap kalep was given a rope , then pulled and tied withpegs . Thus , upright branches that had grown up going to grow down horizontally aligned .4 ) FertilizationBefore fertilization we have to look at the state of the soil , the plants will need fertilizer and nutrients contained in the soil .a) How to cultivateIn the early stages of plant make encircling ditch . Midline gutter width adapted to the tree canopy . The depth of the ditch made ​​20-30 cm . Spade aside land at the edges . After the fertilizer is spread evenly into a ditch , the soil was returned to close the gutter . After the re-leveled ground , when the soil is dry immediately do the watering .b ) The type and dose of fertilizerType of fertilizer that is used to fertilize the durian is manure , compost , green manure and artificial fertilizer . Proper fertilization can make plants grow fast . After three months planted , durian require supplementary fertilizer NPK ( 15:15:15 ) 200 gr perpohon . Furthermore , follow-up with NPK fertilization was performed routinely every four months to three years old plants .Once a year the plants fertilized with organic compost / manure 60-100 kg per tree in the dry season . Fertilization is done by digging holes around the bottom of the stem below the crown of the outer canopy of the plant . Plants durian = 3 -year -old usually starts forming stem and crown . After that , every year durian requires an additional 20-25 %NPK fertilizer from the previous dose . If in year 3 , durian given 500 grams of NPK fertilizer per tree then in the 4th dose to 600-625 grams of NPK per tree . Needs manure also increased , ranging between 120-200 kg / tree durian flowering ahead require NPK 10:30:10 . This fertilizer when the plants are sown completed form new shoots ( before the plants will bloom ) .5 ) Irrigation and WateringDurian requires a lot of water to grow , but the soil should not be waterlogged for too long or get too wet . Newly planted durian seedlings need watering once a day , especially if the seeds are planted in the dry season . After a one -month -old plants , water plants can be reduced by about three times a week . Dikebunkan durian wide-scale availability of absolute needadequate water resources . In irrigation water drainage channels need to be made to avoid water flooded the plant beds .6 ) Time Pesticide SprayingTo get good growth of plant seeds , seedlings once every 2 weeks of growth regulators Atonik sprayed with a dose of 1 cc / liter of water and added to the Metallic with a dose of 0.5 cc / liter of water . This is done to stimulate plant growth to make it more perfect . The type of insecticide used is Basudin sprayed according to the rules defined and useful for the prevention of insects . Melaburi enough to stem fungi with fungicides ( eg Dithane or Antracol ) to be healthy . It's better if at the time of planting , durian stem dilaburi by the fungicide .7 ) Other MaintenanceProvision of plant growth regulators ( PGR ) function affects the tissues in various organs of the plant . This substance did not provide additional nutrient elements in plants . PGR can make the plants become weak so the consumer must be adapted to the usage instructions on the label in the box , because the use of PGR 's just mixed it.

7 . PEST AND DISEASE7.1 . pest1 ) fruit borer ( Java : Gala - Gala )Feature : eggs laid on fruit skin and protected by nets like a house spider . Larvae that have hatched from the eggs directly broaching and perforate the walls of the fruit to get into . The larvae live inside the fruit to mature . Fruits are attacked sometime before dark fell . The spread : fruit borer insects spread by flying from tree to tree durian one another . This borer insects lay their eggs on its host durian fruit . These activities are conducted periodically spawn every dry season ahead . Control : done with insecticides , such as Basudin , Sumithion 50 AC , Thiodan 35 EC , at a dose of 2-3 cc / liter of water .2 ) Mini BeeCharacteristics : These pests are small , blackish brown body and white striped wings wide . After the bees to red violet , size to 3.5 cm in length . In phase caterpillar ( larva ) , this pest attacks the leaves of young durian . During these pests undergo a period of rest ( forms a cocoon ) ,they will stick closely to the skin of fruit . After becoming bee foraging insects by means of broaching the young branches and eat the young leaves . Control : use parvasida , such Hostathion 40 EC ( Triazofos 420 grams / liter ) , and insecticides , such as the EC 40 dose Supracide 420 grams / liter and Temik 106 ( Aldikarl 10 % ) .3 ) flower borer moth ( Prays citry )These caterpillars attack the newly flowering plants , especially the flower buds and fruits candidates . Feature : This caterpillar body color brown green and red head , after being a butterfly brownish red brown , gray and slender . Symptoms : flower buds are attacked will be damaged and stigma many are falling . Similarly , stamens and flower canopy was damaged all , while the buds and pistils broken because of injuries digerek caterpillar . Transmission to other plants carried by butterflies from these pests . Control : by spraying drugs like Supracide 40 EC , nuvacrom SWC , Perfekthion 400 EC ( Eimetoat 400 grams / liter ) .4 ) durian FleasFeature : brownish insects and body covered yarns white candle body secretion ; shape of the body , wings and legs are similar to fleas that attack plants lamtoro . Symptoms : fleas swarming attack young shoots by sucking fluid in the bones of the leaves so that the leaves will be dwarfed and stunted growth ; after sucking the liquid , this ticks secrete lymph fluid tastes sweet dense and evenly to the entire surface of the leaf so inviting ants clustered . Control : leaves and twigs are attacked trimmed to be destroyed . Chemical control can be done by spraying insecticides Supracide EC 40 dose of 100-150 g / 5 liters of water .7.2 . disease1 ) Phytopthora parasitica and Pythium complectensCause : Pythium complectens , which attacks the plant parts such as leaves , roots and stems . Transmission and causes : the disease spreads quickly to other nearby trees . Transmission occurs when the roots are injured . Transmission occurs together with the dissolution of soil or organic matter transported water . Symptoms : durian leaves turn yellow and fall stricken from old leaves , branches of trees looked sick and dead ends , followed by the development of shoots of branches underneath. The skin above the soil surface becomes brown and rot . Decay at the roots confined to the lower roots , but can be extended from the tip of the lateral roots up to the taproot . When viewed from outside the diseased roots appear normal , but tissue and skin become old colat vessel network into pink . Control : ( 1 ) seek good drainage so the soil does nottoo wet and the water does not flow to the surface of the ground on a rainy day ; ( 2 ) unloaded diseased trees up by the roots and burned ; ( 3 ) select gravel durian seedlings for rootstock because this type lebioh resistant to fungal attack in order to avoid rot disease .2 ) Cancer spottingCause : Pythium palvimora , especially attacks the bark and wood . The spread by spores sembara conjunction with a grain of soil or organic material that is caught water . The spread of this disease is driven by high rainfall in dry weather . The fungus can grow well at temperatures between 12-35 degrees C. Symptoms : durian bark infested issued blendok ( gum ) dark ; Skin tissue turns into dark red , dark brown or black ; diseased portion may extend into the wood to ; fall leaves and young twigs of the tip starts to die . Control : ( 1 )drainage improvements so that rainwater does not flow to the surface of the soil and diseased stem ; ( 5 ) is done by cutting the skin of the sick to the healthy wood and pieces of diseased plants should be burned , while the injured smeared fungicides , for example Difolatan 4 F 3 % .3 ) Mushroom rattleSymptoms : on the branches and bark fungus threads are shiny like cobwebs on the branches . The fungus develops into crust and pink skin and into the wood , causing the death of the branch . Control : ( 1 ) fungal attackstill at the level of a spider's web can be controlled in a way to lubricate the affected branches degan fungicides , for example calizin RM ; ( 2 ) if the fungus has formed a crust pink , cuts should be made branch Approximately 30 cm below the moldy parts ; ( 3 ) by spraying Antrocol 70 WP ( propineb 70.5 % ) , a dose of 100-200 grams / liter of water or 1-1.5 kg / ha application .

8 . HARVEST8.1 . Characteristics and HarvestAt the age of about 8 years , the plants have started flowering durian . Flowering season falls during the dry season , the months of June to September months of October to February so that the fruit is mature and ready to be picked . Cultivated durian harvest before the rainy season because rain water can damage the quality of the fruit .The color is almost ripe durian vary somewhat depending on kultivarnya . Ripe fruit is generally characterized by a pungent aroma . At the ripe durian thorns or fruit when a knock will sound the clang of air between the contents and the skin .8.2 . How to HarvestRipe durian fruit itself will fall . To keep the fruit does not immediately fall , about a month before the ripe fruit can be tied with plastic rope . The purpose of the binding so that the fruit stalk is detached from the trunk or branches of trees still hanging on the rope so that the durian fruit can be taken in one piece . Low durian fruit can be picked from the tree using a sharp knife . Fruit stalk is cut from the very top , ± 1.5 cm from the limb .Cutting should be done with caution because in this place there are materials that will flower buds the following season .Durian fruit which is located high on the tree should be picked by using the appropriate tools in order not to fall to the ground . Durian that falls to the ground is usually cracked , flesh be sour / bitter due to the fermentation of alcohol and acid formation .8.3 . Production forecastThe number of durian trees can be harvested in one year is 60-70 grains perpohon with an average weight of 2.7 kg . If desired amount of fruit more fruit then the weight will drop .

9 . postharvest9.1 . collectionIn place of gathering each stalk durian specifically labeled or painted with a specific color to indicate the origin of durian orchard . If the quality is not good can be corrected in the next year .9.2 . Sorting and ClassificationYields were collected , selected and sorted out by size . Selection should be done so that no defects are involved sent fruits , especially when the fruit is to be sold or exported .9.3 . storageDurian is already optionally washed and sprayed with water so that the dirt on the skin to be clean . Furthermore, fruit dipped in water that has been 800 WP fungicide Aliette active ingredient aluminum tris ( Oethy / phosphonate ) 22 cc / liter . The purpose of this immersion is to avoid attacks fruit rot caused by the fungus Phytophtora sp during curing and transportation . Then the dried fruit . Durian along casket loaded into the warehouse to bring sufficient lighting .9.4 . Packaging and TransportationDurian fruit to be exported be treated : as dried fruit , fruit wrapped in a plastic bag and tied with raffia Each plastic bag contains one grain of the durian fruit . Fruit that has been wrapped in a plastic bag wrapped in paper bags of cement . After that , put in a 3 mm thick cardboard box . Each ungkus durian contains 5-6 items so that each carton box contains 10-15 kg of durian . This box is fixed by duct tape ( adhesive plastic ) thick that is not easily tear if exposed to friction .This packaging technology noticed that the air hole air circulation , but also there is the outer plastic coating to resist the release of odor , so there is no contact between the air in the packing box with outside air inside it if there is a durian that does not smell pungent smell ripe until exit .9.5 . Other handlingIf you want to produce frozen durian to be marketed to a distant place , it can be done packing way down for air , this method is widely used by Thai farmers . Once peeled , the durian is inserted into the tool down for air for 35-40 minutes at a temperature of 40oC below zero . After that , the durian fruit put in a 300 gram plastic and placed in a cold room with a temperature of 18 degrees C below zero .

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