Definition of agribusiness

Definition of agribusiness

 
Basically every human being must have a variety of needs to continue to run their lives . Human needs can be fulfilled through a variety of goods or services . In this modern era every human being no longer meet their needs in a way to produce or generate its own all the goods or services that are in need, but human beings with each other doing various activities such as exchanges , trading , buying and selling , leasing , and so forth . All these activities that describe what is meant by AGRIBISNIS .
Agribusiness is an activity that occurred starting from the upstream - downstream process which over time affects the lives of every person . Agribusiness produce most of the goods and services consumed by each person .
The main purpose of business is to make a profit / income . Profit can motivate businesses to take the risk to invest to run a business and work hard and sacrifice time and to expand its business .
From the above objectives can be taken laba.Laba notion is money remaining after subtracting the company's costs to produce and market goods and services from penerimannya .
In conducting business activities should require earnings because :
1 . Rewards for business owners who have taken the risks that may occur in the ownership of a business .
2 . For the growth of the business itself
3 . Attract new investors , in order to encourage economic growth , job creation , and economic welfare increases
4 . Profit as a spur to work more efficiently
5 . Profits will constitute income for the government , due to increasing business profits , it also increases government revenue through the taxation system
The ability of a company to generate profit is determined by the activities undertaken by the company such as production , sales , research and development , distribution and many other activities . Implementation of these activities require performance is use of resources .
A. Natural Resources
Is any decree anything tangible and can be used to run agribusiness development , decree anything tangible is to be developed on the land of resources or natural resources that are in it . Soil may serve for agribusiness development process because the land is the natural riches contained therein serves as a residence , place of doing business, and as a raw material to obtain other goods .
B. The pattern of agriculture as the base for building agribusiness
The natural environment is an important factor for tersediannya inputs / raw materials in the production process . The quality of the natural environment will determine the quality of the output / product that created the company .

 
Various pollutants contaminating the natural environment such as air pollution , water pollution and energy crisis may threaten the survival of the company . Companies in developed countries have anticipate this natural deterioration among others by avoiding environmental pollution such as using environmentally friendly machines and operate recycling system to treat waste production .

Healthy Paradigm for Health and Safety at Work by experts

Healthy Paradigm for Health and Safety at Work by experts
By prof . Dr. . Tri Martiana , dr . , MS
Professor of Occupational Health and SafetyInauguration Date : 30-01-2010Faculty : Public HealthSpeech : K - 3 Revitalization Through Healthy Paradigm ( For Optimizing Prevention of Accidents and Diseases Employment )
Every job in this world is almost certainly no one was at risk . Like the proverbial wet water play , play fire charred . Accidents and occupational illness has become a risk any person who does the job , be it farmers , fishermen , factory workers , miners , and even office employees .
Throughout 2009 , the government recorded have occurred as much as 54 398
cases of occupational accidents in Indonesia . Although it showed a downward trend , but the figure is still high . Accidents at work in a sugar factory in Central Java, causing four workers killed in Tuban, East Java and one died and two others were wounded splashed hot dust while working in a cement factory is one of the few examples of cases of occupational accidents resulting in loss of lives even to eliminate .
Losses due to accidents is not only felt by the workers themselves , but also can have an impact on the surrounding community . Hence the need for the implementation of a safety and health management system (SMK3 ) workplace -based health paradigm .
It 's becoming an urgent need given the amount of labor in Indonesia in 2009 amounted to 104.49 million , work in the formal sector by 30.51 % , while 69.49 % worked in the informal sector , with 41.18 % of the distribution of work in the field agriculture , industry 12.07 %, trading at 20.90 %, transport , storage and communication of 5.69 %, 4.42 % increase in construction , financial services and 14.44 %, as well as mining , electricity and gas 1.3 % ( Press Release 2009) . From the data in 2007 are known workplace accident occured on construction labor and industry respectively 31.9 % and 31.6 % .
Prof . DR . Tri Martiana , dr . , MS . , Professor University Press Science Occupational Safety and Health which was confirmed on Saturday ( 30/1 ) at Rector Building Airlangga University , said that the health paradigm in the community is now beginning to fade . Health paradigm that is more emphasis on preventive perspective ( prevention ) and promotive health problem in saw still less attention in the field of occupational safety and health .
According to Prof . Tri , this time most of the companies prefer to pay for treatment and care for workers who are sick ( curative ) rather than seek a system of management of K - 3 are well within the company for the prevention of accidents and occupational illness . On the pretext of costs incurred for preventive - promotive efforts greater . Yet , if employment falls ill , it will be more losses will be borne by the company .
In addition to the loss of funds for the cost of care and treatment , loss of productivity, the company will also work . And for the government it is a burden , as more and more workers who are sick or disabled as a result of work will reduce the quality and quantity of human resources development for the betterment of the nation .
Factors basic cause of workplace accidents is the poor management of K - 3 , the absence of a firm commitment to implement SMK3 and work environment factors . These three things are cause unsafe action ( unsafe acts ) and the unsafe condition ( unsafe conditions ) which is a factor not directly cause accidents. While the onset of factors directly cause workplace accidents is the lack of risk control measures and the presence of potential hazards in the workplace . 80 % of accidents caused by unsafe actions , such behavior was not wearing a helmet construction workers as well as the habit of not wearing a mask and gloves during work by workers dealing with chemicals . To prevent unsafe action is to attempt preventive - promotive , equip the workforce of the knowledge of K - 3 and is supported by the K - 3 culture in the workplace .
As optimizing the health paradigm in the prevention of accidents and diseases carried by appointing a working relationship expert assistance for all K - 3 industry . Problems still facing today is the lack of human resources experts namely K - 3 as a builder SMK3 implementation in the company , due to the low numbers of college graduates or college field K - 3 .
"We need to increase cooperation of all sectors and professional organizations to provide input to the government in the form of groundbreaking efforts in the field of K - 3 , " said the woman born in Surabaya .
The breakthrough for example, provide recommendations to the government related issues Threshold Limit Value ( TLV ) is used to determine the potential hazards of a material exposure to physical , biological or chemical in the workplace . During the NAB was adopted from the National Institute for Occupational standards Safety and Health ( NIOSH ), which is actually less appropriate when applied in Indonesia , because the climate and conditions are different from Americans .
" There needs to be encouragement to conduct further research in this regard and then be recommended to the government " he added . Cooperation of various sectors in question , for example, between departments of agriculture, fisheries and the health department . The three agencies that can make the Joint Decree ( SKB ) as the foundation for efforts to provide protection for the K - 3 informal sector workers , such as farmers and fishermen are still less attention .

Source of Vitamins in food

Source of vitamins :
Sources of vitamins are vegetables and fresh fruits every day akonsumsi kit . However, the levels of vitamins in the diet depends on the type of food , how penyimpaan and processing methods .

  
Vitamin A is produced by the two compounds are converted by the body into vitamin . Vitamin A derived from animal ( provitamin A ) are available in the form of retinol , while derived from vegetable available in the form of beta-carotene . Beta-carotene which we consume in the small intestine is converted to vitamin

 
Vitamins can not be manufactured by the body but must be added through the food we eat . It is no wonder that today many vitamin or multivitamin products sold in pharmacies and drug stores . One of the common vitamins
for sale is a vitamin B complex . These vitamins are sold in the form of multivitamins , milk , and food additives
Ubi contained many vitamins , fiber and minerals that are useful to the body such as vitamin C , vitamin E , vitamin B , vitamin Potassium words have been proposed by an expert biochemical Poland in 1912.Vita nation in Latin bemaksud life and mine - amine is the addition of the amine is word ; crowded you indulge in those who thought bahawa all vitamins are amines and now these errors are into disedari .
Values ​​for consuming certain foods have been known to perpetuate kesihatan long before vitamins are known for sure . People do know that ancient Egyptians gave pesakit eat liver will help treat night blindness , which is now known due to lack of vitamin A. In 1747 , Scotland surgeon , James Lind menyedari bahawa citrus foods helped stymie beriberi (scurvy ) ,
capable of carrying a deadly disease in which collagen is not formed, and the characteristics that emerge are slower to heal wounds , bleeding gums , and excessive pain . In 1753 , Lind published his Treatise on the Scurvy . What results is met , however, is not widely accepted . For example , an expedition to the Arctic Sea Tentera Di Raja in the 19th century , it is widely believed bahawa beriberi be abducted by good personal hygiene on board , senaman periodically , and perpetuate moral accomplice ship , instead of the food permakanan fresh . This resulted Tentera sea expedition it was attacked by the disease beriberi . When Robert Falcon Scott's expedition to Antarctica to do two at the beginning of the 20th century , when it was perubatan theory beriberi disease caused by contaminated food in tin .
Symptoms of vitamin deficiency in humans called " deficiency " . A deficiency of certain vitamins would show the typical symptoms that may be caused by the absence of the vitamin in foodstuffs or available in sufficient quantity , but only a few are absorbed in the digestive system
The things that cause vitamin in foods is lost
1 . The longer foods are stored the more vitamins are lost
2 . Wash your food too long in the water
3 . Food items that have been cut into pieces so that the surface is not directly cooked food so that it can come into contact with contaminated dirt .
4 . In the cooking process uses high temperatures
5 . Using too much water boiled cooking process so much time is wasted .
Loss of vitamins in cooking can be prevented by
1 . Using the temperature is not too high
2 . Cooking time not too long
3 . Using a little cooking water may
4 . Cutting food is not too small so that the vitamins in foods is not much coming out .
5 . Pot should be closed when cooking
6 . Remaining water boilers used for other dishes .

understanding and impact of Pumblum/PB ( Lead ) Against Health

understanding and impact of Pb ( Lead ) Against Health
Physical and Chemical Properties ( Lead )


        
Lead ( Pb ) is a metal that is soft bluish or silvery gray with a melting point at 327.5 ° C and a boiling point of 1,740 ° C at atmospheric pressure . Organic compounds such as Pb - Pb and Pb - tetraethyl - tetramethyl is important because many compounds are used as a fuel additive in gasoline in an effort to increase the octane number economically . PB - tetraethyl and tetramethyl Pb form of a solution to the boiling point , respectively 110 ° C and 200 ° C. Because the evaporation power of the two compounds is lower than the evaporation power of other elements in gasoline , then gasoline evaporation will tend to concentrate the levels of P - tetraethyl - and tetramethyl Pb . Both this compound decomposes at its boiling point in the presence of sunlight and other chemicals in the air such as acids or oxidizing compounds holegen .
Impact on Health

Exposure of Pb recorded but the industry has a lot of significance in masyarakatvluas still controversy Exposure , Levels of Pb in nature but extremely varied content in the human body ranged between 100-400 mg . Pb input source is food , especially for those who do not work or contact with Pb estimated averagePb enter through food is 300 mcg per day with a range between 100-500 mg per day . Average enter through drinking water is 20 mg with a range between 10-100 mg . Only the most intake (intake ) are absorbed through digestion . In adult humans for long-term absorption ranged between 5-10 % when the intake is not excessive Pb contents in the stool can be to estimate the daily intake as 90 % Pb removed in this way . Contribution of Pb in the air against the absorption by the body is more difficult to estimate . Particle size distribution and the particle solubility pb also be considered pb levels in the air are usually about 2 mg/m3 and assuming 30 % precipitate respiratory duct and absorption of approximately 14 mg / per day . This calculation may be considered too large and Pb particles emitted from motor vehicles turned out to join the carbon filaments and smaller than expected even though the aggregate is very small ( 0.1 mm ) the amount retained in the alveoli may be less than 10 % . Solubility test showed that Pb was in a soluble form . Almost all organs containing Pb and approximately 90 % found in the bones , blood content of less than 1% of the content in the blood is influenced by the new intake ( within last 24 Hours ) and By pelepan of the skeletal system . Humans with low exposure containing 10-30 mg g Pb/100 Human blood contains high levels of exposure received more than 100 mg/100 g of blood in the blood content of about 40 mg Pb/100g considered heavy or absorb Pb exposure is high enough , though not detected signs Symptoms of poisoning complaints . There are differences in the level of lead concentrations in offices and rural women tend to contain Pb lower than men , and higher in smokers than nonsmokers . The clinical symptoms of lead poisoning in adult individuals will not arise at lead concentrations in the blood contained below 80 mg g Pb/100 blood but obstacles to the synthesis of hemoglobin enzyme activity has occurred in the normal Pb content ( 30-40 mg ) . Lead accumulates in the hair so it can be used as an indicator to estimate the level of exposure or body content of Pb in children is a group of high risika direct Swallowing former Pb -containing paint is a source of exposure , in addition to industrial emissions and road dust from heavy traffic Pb poisoning may exist also to do with mental retardation , but there is no clear evidence . Pb organic compound is neurotoxic and causes anemia Almost all Pb - Pb tetraethyl converted into organic combustion of motor fuels and is released into the air . Effect of Pb in the body is not well known but need to be wary of long -term exposure Lead in bone is not toxic but in certain circumstances can be released due to infection or biochemical processes and providesymptoms of Pb salt complaint is not against human karsiogenik . Health problems are due to Pb reacting with sulfhydryl cluster of proteins that cause precipitation of proteins and inhibit the manufacture of hemoglobin , found symptoms of acute poisoning when ingested in large amounts can cause vomiting or abdominal pain of acute diarrhea . Symptoms of chronic poisoning can cause loss of appetite , constipation fatigue headache , anemia , paralysis of limbs , seizures and visual disturbances .

The relationship of water to health

The relationship of water to health Most of the body of organisms, including humans consists of water. Globally, about 80% of the human body is composed of liquid water in addition to that there are elements and minerals, the large is for human physical growth, such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and other elements. In the human body there are about 33% water in fatty tissues and bones, 77% in meat, 80% in the lung and kidney, 84% in the nerve tissue, body fluids (plasma) 99.5% (David, 2008) .
The human body is mostly made up of water, approximately 60-70% of their body weight. For its survival, the human body requires, among others, the amount of water depending on body weight. For adults require approximately 2,200 grams of water every day. Usefulness of water for the human body, among others for digestion, metabolism, transport of nutrients in the body, regulate body temperature and keep the balance not to body drought. If the body loses a lot of water then it will result in death (Sutrisno, 2006).
If it be the incidence of epidemic diseases transmitted through water is always associated with water quality used as human studies that have used John Snow in the UK in two centuries ago that the spread of various infectious diseases related to contamination of drinking water from local PAM (David , 2008).
Water is very closely related to human life, which means a huge role in human health. Some of the things that shows the relationship of water to health is the presence of pathogenic organisms in the water that can cause illness or health problems such as bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Besides showing the relationship of water to health is the presence of non-pathogenic organisms such as actinomycetes, algae, and bacteria coliform (Sutrisno, 2006).
In countries that have developed water-related diseases are very rare, because of the water supply is very fuel-efficient. However, in developing countries may be as much as 2 billion live without safe drinking water (save water) and adequate sanitation, as a result, victims of water-related diseases in developing countries is high and even up to the level of scary.
A survey conducted by the WHO last shows the fact that every day 30,000 people have died from diseases caused by water. At any time there are approximately 400 million people suffering from stomach and digestive diseases (gastroenteritis), 200 million people suffer from schistosomiasis, 160 million people suffer from malaria, and 30 million people suffer onchocrriasis. All the above types of disease can be attributed to water although other environmental factors influence.
Microorganisms contained in water derived from various sources such as air, soil, trash, mud, plants dead or alive (carcass), human and animal waste, other organic materials and so on. Microorganisms may live in the water durable, long lasting or not live in water because the environment is not suitable.
Water can be a medium carrier of pathogenic microorganisms that are harmful to health. Pathogens are often found in water is mainly bacteria that cause infections such as Vibrio cholerae gastrointestinal causes cholera, shigella dysenteriae causes bacillary dysentery, typhoid and salmonella causes typosa S. paratyphi causes paratyphoid, polio and hepatitis virus and Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebic dysentery. To prevent the spread of waterborne diseases is necessary to control water pollution.
Jumlahdan types of microorganisms contained in water varies depending on various factors. These factors are is as follows:

    
Source of water
    
Components of nutrients in the water
     
Toxic components
    
Aquatic organisms
     
Physical factors
Factor X is a chemical substance that dissolves easily in water and can cause problems as follows:

     
Toxicity
    
Chemical reactions that lead to:
     
Excessive deposition
    
Incidence of persistent foam, which is difficult to remove
    
The emergence of physiological responses that are not expected to change the taste or the effects of physical embodiment laxatif water.
The increase in population is not comparable to residential areas, the disposal of human waste increases. Seen is a problem as early as possible subject to the above, because human waste is a source of penyakihttp :/ / adf.ly/9Upht

understanding and kind Nemathelminthes

understanding and kind Nemathelminthes (roundworms) Nemathelminthes derived from the word meaning thread and hemins nematos yan meaning worm. These worms are commonly called worms gilik.

    
The characteristics
    
Nemathelminthes can be found in terrestrial, freshwater, seawater and regional poles to the tropics. Free life, if that is parasitic on plants and animals do not have a circulatory system and the heart, but his body fluids containing blood senacam that can seep into the body. Gilik long body shape with bilateral symmetry. His body does not have cilia and not segmented, lined by cuticle transparent.
    
Members of the phylum NemathelminthesContoh famous Nemathelminthes other anata:
a. Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm)
Ascaris generally live as parasites in the human gut. These animals bersiat cosmopolitan (found everywhere). Especially in the tropics. And menyebabapkan disease known as ascariasis.
Elliptical shape of the body part that is tapered ends. The mouth is located at the anterior end and is equipped with 3 lips. Body of female worms was bigger and longer than male worms. Diameter is relatively straight female worms. While the male worms have a curved posterior end.
The life cycle of roundworms
Yan eggs fertilized out into free with feces. If the egg is ingested with food or drink, then in the small intestine of these eggs will trickle into tiny larvae. After redeeming the intestinal wall. These larvae with the blood flow to the lungs and to the heart of the shoes. The larvae can reach the trachea and then swallowed again and again samapai in the small intestine and grow into adult worms.
b. Ancylostoma (hookworm)
This worm parasites in the intestines of humans and many dijumapai in mining areas, especially in hot climates. The worms suck blood so it can mengakibatkab death.
With tips yangmendapat its mouth, the worm is attached firmly in the gut. FISH worm body length 1-15 cm.
Which referred hookworm, Ancylostoma doudenale example, there is in tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Other species are Necator Americanus found in America.
Hookworm life cycle
Adult worms are ektroparasit in the human intestine. In appropriate areas, namely soil moisture, the fertilized egg will drip and within seharari produce larvae. These larvae can penetrate human skin through bare feet skin. Together bloodstream, the larvae till the heart and lungs. From the lungs, the larvae penetrate the walls of the lungs until ketrakea then kefaring. Then larfa entered again into the small intestine and grow into adult hookworms. Adult male and female worms can perform marriages.
c. Oxyurius vernicularis (pinworms)
Oxyurius vernicularis (Enterobius termicularis) live in the large intestine, the female worms anatara 9-15 mm in length, at the time of laying eggs, the female worm toward the anus to obtain the oxygen needed for the growth of the larvae. This worm movement causes intense itching in the anus. When scratched with a nail, then the egg is embedded in the nail. The food which is handled by containing worm eggs causing participate swallowed worm eggs. (Mainly in children). Worms carried through the digestive tract till keusus great. In the large intestine worms grow into adults and can beremban multiply.
d. Wuchereria bancrofi (filaria worms)
Filarial worms have a host of temporary animal arthropods, such as mosquitoes, and inng keep the man in the lymph vessels.
e. Trichinela spiral (worm muscle)
This worm disease causing trichinosis in humans, pigs, or rats. Masukketubuh human parasites through pork undercooked. In the human intestine, the larvae develop into young worms. Keotot young worms move through the lymph vessels or blood and then into adult worms. To prevent infection by this worm, the meat should be cooked till the ripe young worms to turn off.
f. Heterodera radicicola
These worms live on plant roots and cause the or swelling at the root.

Platyhelmithes

Platyhelmithes is phylum in the kingdom Animalia ( animals ) . This phylum flatworms enough all except Nemertinae , which used to be one of the classes in Platyhelminthes .
1 . The characteristics
Doseventral flat body and jointed - books . Ummnya , class of flatworms live in rivers , lakes , sea , or as parasites in the bodies of other organisms . This group of worms are very sensitive to light . Example ; Platyhelminthes is planaria are often found behind the rocks ( 2-3 cm long ) , Bapilium who live behind the moss moist ( up to 60 cm long ) , Clonorchis sinesis , liver flukes , and tapeworms .
2 . body structure
Palatyhelminthes is classified tripoblastik aselomata worm because it has 3 layers consisting of embryonic ectoderm , endoderma ,
and mesoderma . But this worm mesoderma not experienced a specialization so that the cells remain uniform and do not form a special cell .
3 . sisitem digestion
Digestion system flatworms called gastrovaskuler system , in which the circulation of the blood but food through the intestines . Flat cacin digestion system starts from the mouth , fangs , and continued to keronggkongan . Behind the esophagus are intestines which has branches throughout the body . Thus , in addition to digesting food , the gut also distribute food throughout the body .
In addition , disposing of leftover food by mouth because it has no anus . Flatworms have not had a transportation system because of its food in edearkan through gastrovakular system while the O2 and CO2 gas expelled from the body through the process of diffusion .
4 . The nervous system
There are several kinds of nervous system in flatworms
· Rope ladder nervous system , is the most simple nervous system . In the central nervous system called a ganglion yan brain . And both the brain ganglion nerve cord exit side extending at the left and right parts of the body which is connected with the transverse nerve fibers .
· In a more level flatworms , the nervous system can be composed of nerve cells ( neurons ) that differentiate into sensory nerve cells ( cells carrying signals from the senses to the brain ) , the motor nerve cells ( cells from the brain to the effector carrier ) , and cell association ( peranata ) .
5 . sense
Several types of flatworms have a oseli sensing system , which spots the eye that contains light-sensitive pigment . The eye spots are usually numbered and there is a section antorier pair ( head ) . The whole flatworms have penetrated senses and komoresptor cells throughout the body . Some species also have additional senses such as the auricle ( ear ) , statosista ( stabilizers ) , and reoreseptor ( organs to determine the direction of flow of the river ) . Generally flatworms have osomoregulasi system called protonerfida . This system consists of a vascular channel that ends in cell fire . Its discharge hole called protonefridiotor totaling pair or more . Meanwhile, remove metabolic waste in the body diffusion through the cell wall .
6 . reproduction
Flatworms can produce asexually by splitting and sexually by cross-breeding , even though the animal is classified as hermaphrodites .
7 . classification
Differentiated into three classes , namely :
· Class turbellarian a flatworm that uses fur shakes as a tool motion . For example : planaria
· Class Trematodes ( worms suction ) , has a suction tool that comes with tips for putting yourself on the host for this group live as parasites in humans and animals , for example: Trematodes are Fasciota ( liver fluke ) , Clonorchis , and Shistosoma .
· Class Cestoda have skin that is covered so that chitin is not polluted by enzymes in the gut of the host . This worm is a parasite in animals , is Taenia solium Contonya and T saginata species using skolasi to stick to the gut of the host . Taenia reproduce using fertilized eggs and larvae contained therein called onkosfer .
8 . Disease caused by Paltyhelmithes
Platyhelminthes can cause disease in humans and animals . Among the genus Schistosoma that can cause aksistosomiasis , parasitic disease is transmitted by freshwater snails in humans . When these worms thrive in the human body , can be tissue damage and organ such as the bladder , ureter , liver , affluent , and human kidney .

procedures in Softball Game

procedures in Softball Game Softball game exactly born in the United States, which was created in building sports Farragut Boat Club Chicago, Illinois 16 September 1887 by accident by George Hancock. Initially there were some alumni of Yale University and Harvard are listening end result American football game between Yale and Harvard at Farragut Boat club. After the final score was announced that Yale win, a Yale alumnus enthusiastically threw a boxing glove to support Harvard. With a reflex take a stick and hit it towards boxing gloves. Looking at it gives an idea of ​​a reporter Chicago Board of Trade, George Hancock. He suggested to create a game in the room with a ball made of boxing gloves are thrown earlier. He took a boxing glove and tied it tightly wearing a strap, so like a ball. Then with a few pieces of chalk, Hancock marked the Farragut Boat floor resembles a baseball field.

 
As a hitter is used a broom. The team split into two and Hancock shouting "Play ball", then began the game with a final score of 44-40. Since it is an indoor version of baseball games are known. Named indoor baseball. Because the shape of the ball changes. The name softball before adjusting the material used to make the ball, be the names that are used when it is kitten ball, army ball, mush ball, and also indoor-outdoor, recreation ball, and playground ball.
At the beginning of the 20th century began playing softball as done outdoors indoors. 1908 amateur organization for this new game (National Amateur Playground Ball Association of the United States) regulate this sport to be played outdoors using a larger ball. 1923 National Recreation Congress (the National Recreation Congress) asked the commission to standardize this sport, and in 1926 the name "softball" is used, although not formalized.
In 1933, the first world championship held in the shadow of the Amateur Softball Association of America (Amateur Softball Association of America) which has been used as a basic rule in America. Champion for men's softball class at the time was JL Gills of Chicago, and the female champion Great Northerns from the same city. Although the amateur championship is contested, they usually sponsored by industry organizations in the region.
Since 1933 "softball" has become an official name. And in 1934, the establishment of common rules to standardize regulations further provide softball. There have been many changes in the rules since then, particularly in 1946, where there is a change in the number of players in a team of 10 to 9. Players to ten called "shortfielder" at the time served as the guardian of the shallow part of the outfield that menjelalajah behind the infield. In 1950 the distance between the pitcher's plate and home plate coupled to the son of 43 feet to 46 feet (13,114 meters).
In terms of participants, softball has evolved into a great team sport and vogue. Smaller field available. Both women and men, can play it. Furthermore men beyond the age of the athlete can play as outside activities such as a picnic or a game official in the social community without going through the warm-up and exercise routine are required, similar to baseball.
In the 1960s, the majority of the team has registered 125,000 in the Amateur Softball Association of America. And held six national championships each year. This does not include members of men and women who compete in the unofficial competition. On the other State softball has also become a popular sport both men and women young and old.
In 1949, Team Canada, Toronto's Tip Top Tailors, won international championships conducted periodically by the Amateur Softball Association and is the first competition that is really a world championship level for the son. Held in 1966 under the sponsorship of the International Softball Federation (International Softball Federation). Australia won the first championship for women in 1965.
Softball is played by two teams on the pitch softball. Each team has a minimum of 9 players and the rest are backup. The game consists of 9 rounds called the inning. In one inning, the team that competed each have a chance to hit (batting) to score (runs). When the attacking team gets a turn to hit, a pitcher (pitcher) defending team throws the ball toward the catcher (catcher) at full speed so that the ball can not hit the dipukul.Tim whose turn alternately one by one to hit the ball. The team is just trying to turn off the rest of the team gets a turn to hit. The team gets a chance to hit a turn 3 times dead (out) before hitting the turn replaced by the defending team.
Score or run resulting from a runner ran over all base sequentially stepped on home plate and back. Every runner who managed to surround and stepped on home plate one point. When the game is determined by an innings. Each team gets a turn to hit up to 3 times out and switch off 3 times out of the opposing team, called the first inning. In each game softball game at least 7 innings duration depends on the situation, or a long time 2 hours. After spending inning, the team scored (run) ever be a winner.
If the time specified in the inning is over and both teams in the state series, played extra innings until one team emerged as the winner. The condition is called a tie-break or series. At the beginning of the game, the team that hosted the (home team) gets a turn throwing while the visitors (visitors) get a turn to hit.
Square softball field. Divided into regional fair (fair territory) and local foul (foul territory). Further in the fair area is divided into two parts, the inside (Infield), and the outside (outfield).
In the area there are 4 markers in the (base). Each marker is numbered counter-clockwise, starting from the initial markers called home plate, followed by the first marker, marking the second and third markers. Marka square with sides of 38 cm (15 inches) is made slightly higher than ground level. The angle of the four markers form a rectangular shape called a diamond (diamond).
Behind home plate boundaries are called backstop as far as 7.62 and 9.14 meters behind home plate. [Edit] Distance between markers were determined trajectory
Running Fast Pitch

Running Slow Pitch
60 feet (18.29 m)

60 feet or 65 feet (19.81 m) [Edit] Distance throwing (pitching) fast pitch specified
Adult

Under 18 years

Under 15 years
Daughter

Son

Daughter

Son

Daughter

Son
43 feet (13.11 m)

46 feet (14.02 m)

40 feet (12.19 m) or 35 feet

46 feet (14.02 m)

40 feet (12.19 m) or 35 feet

46 feet (14.02 m)
 
Distance throwing (pitching) slow pitch specified
Adult

Under 18 years

Under 15 years
Daughter

Son

Princess (univ)

Daughter

Son

Daughter

Son
50 feet (14.02 m)

50 feet (15.24 m)

50 feet (15.24 m)

50 feet (14.02 m)

46 feet (14.02 m)

50 feet (14.02 m)

46 feet (14.02 m)
Minimal equipment needed in a softball game including a ball. Softball uses a yellow ball with red gripberwarna thread, which previously white with white grips. Gloves (glove) worn by all defenders to catch the ball, while the first baseman and catcher wearing mitts (glovemempunyai finger, while not mitts). Bat (bat) used in official matches is specifically designated bat for softball. Terms of use and characteristic that may be used bat regulations contained in the International Softball Federation. Bat helmet worn to protect the head of a bat and ball from the brunt of the injury, while protective clothing (protective gear) for a catcher, and sepatupool (cleats). The latter is a uniform or uniform. Each player uses shirt, pants, and topiyang uniform or the same basic color. The higher levels of the game, the more stringent the regulation uniform. All equipment and supplies that are mandatory for every team in carrying out official match. Referee game
In the softball game there is at least one person to seven hakimatau referee (umpire). There is one person plate umpire and three markers that keep the match referee. More referees monitor the area outside. In the game of fast pitch judged by four referees (one plate umpire, referee three markers).
The term for a referee is "blue", due to their uniform is always blue. The position of an umpire is standing behind the catcher and hitter. Function to see the direction the ball is thrown to a catcher pitcher strike or a ball if it is. The referee also oversee the running game carefully to determine the events that actually happened and keep the players abide by the rules. As the leader of the game is the plate umpire. Because of its nature as pemimpinpertandingan, power plate umpire in a softball game is absolute, can Despite protests (appealed) decision can not be contested if the protests by the player or coach or team manager regarding ajustment, but protests can be done and can be accepted if the protests take place against incorrect application of the rules. So there is a game that can be followed by a protest (the game under protest, more can be read at Softball Game Rules issued by the ISF). a referee can eject anyone either player or even a coach off the court, if according to disrupt the match referee. Game
Softball is played by two teams on the pitch softball. Each team has a minimum of 9 players and the rest are backup. The game consists of 9 rounds called the inning. In one inning, the team that competed each have a chance to hit (batting) to score (runs). When the attacking team gets a turn to hit, the pitcher throws the ball to the defending team catcher direction at full speed so that the ball can not hit the dipukul.Tim whose turn alternately one by one to hit the ball. The team is just trying to turn off the rest of the team gets a turn to hit. The team gets a chance to hit a turn 3 times dead (out) before hitting the turn replaced by the defending team.
Score or run resulting from a runner ran over all markers sequentially stepped on home plate and back. Every runner who managed to surround and stepped on home platemendapat one point. Waktupermainan determined by an innings. Each team gets a turn to hit up to 3 times out and switch off 3 times out of the opposing team, called the first inning. In each game softball game at least 7 innings duration depends on the situation, or a long time 2 hours. After spending inning, the team scored (run) ever be a winner.
If the time specified in the inning is over and both teams in the state series, played extra innings until one team emerged as the winner. The condition is called a tie-break or series. At the beginning of the game, the team that hosted the (home team) gets a turn throwing while the visitors (visitors) get a turn to hit. Ball thrower
The game starts when the referee started the match danmeneriakkan words "Play Ball". Upon entering defender daerahjaganya respectively, the battle between pitcher on the team last danpemukul team gets the ball on the bat to start. Seorangpelempar ball standing on the plate and facing towards the catcher bola.Pelempar ball will bend over backwards to throw the ball mittpenangkap ball. Throwing the ball position has a special area called the strike zone (strike zone), where the final results are above the home plate throws and tingginyatidak over dadadan not less than lututpemukul ball. If the ball is in the strike zone was not hit by the batter, makawasit would yell "strike". And if the ball out of the strike zone, the ball namunpemukul not try to hit the ball then the referee will yell "ball". Strike zone is the zone where the ball dalamwilayah bat at the ball. At the time of throwing, pitching berusahamembuat ball will strike with a vengeance order batsman memukulbola distress although the ball was in the zone pukulnya. So the challenge is to throw a pelemparbola at high speed and with the right target.
 
Catcher
In at least one team has the ball the catcher bola.Penangkap equipped with safety equipment and duty menangkaplemparan pitcher. Catcher uses a helmet (mask penangkapbola) to protect the head and face, body armor to protect the body and protector kakiuntuk protect the knees down. The position of catcher is squatting behind the ball bat. A pitcher and catcher komunikasiyang diharuskanmemiliki both cue-isyaratuntuk cooperate with a lethal bat. A regulator kadangadalah catcher strategiyang well, because the game catcher can see the whole situation that happened in front of him. Guard
In addition to pitchers and catchers, the defending team has 7 guards (fielder) were divided into 4 guards in the area (infielder) and 3 guards outside the area (outfielder). The inside is a guard marker one (the first), two markers guards (second), guard between two and three markers (shortstop), and guard the three markers (third). While the outer guard on the left side (left guard), middle (middle guard), and right (right penajga). All guards (including pitcher and catcher) try to kill 3 people in order to get the other team's turn to hit. Because runhanya can be obtained in a position to attack. Bat
Each batsman has the opportunity strike 3 times and 4 times the ball. 3 times the strike would make the dead-ball hitter "Strike Out". And when the ball 4 times the batsman is allowed free path towards marking one (free walk). If the batsman managed to hit the ball, the batter will run over backwards before the ball reaches the punch markers returned or captured by a guard marker. If the batsman managed to reach the marker before the marker keeper to catch the ball then bat the ball "safe" '. But when the guard marker quicker to catch the ball, then the batsman "out".
There are various types of hit. Hit, bunt, hit and run, Steal and others. Depending on the situation at that time. Various types of hits used in accordance strategiyang offense will be taken.
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Softball
1. Understanding Softball Game
The game of softball is a game similar to baseball games. This game is a team that is one game his team consisting of 9 players. This game was first invented by George Hancock in 1887 in the city of Chicago, USA.
2. Basic Techniques Softball Game
The following are some basic techniques that must be mastered by someone softball game:
- How to hold the ball
- How to catch and throw a ball
- Techniques to throw the ball
- Techniques to catch the ball
- Techniques player pitcher (life jacket ball)
- Techniques catcher player (player case)
- Teknil hit the ball
- Mechanical sliding
3. Formation Softball Players
- First basemen
The following are the duties of a guard base:
- Cut players on the home late
- Makes your opponent dead on base I
- Maintain and catch a ball hit or thrown in towards the base of the I
- Throw the ball to second base to make opposing players die on base II
- Second basemen
The following is the task of the second baseman:
- Making death forced the players in base II
- Maintain a blow to region
- Forward throw from the outfield and infield
- Men-tick opponent escape from the base of the I
- Throw the ball to second base or first base to make the squad dead bat
- Shortstop
The following are the duties of the position between second base and third base:
- Cut and forward ball from the outfield
- Keep the ball punch is in the region
- Helps keep the rear base of the second when second base keeping the base of the second
- Throw the ball to first base and second base
- Third basemen
The following is the task of the third baseman:
- Forward or cut throw the ball from the outfield
- Throw the ball to first base to make a forced death
- Master blow bunt toward third base
- Keep the base of the third
- Pitcher
pitcher or life jacket has the following tasks:
- Assist base
- Helps the player behind home plate
- Catcher
Catcher is the paddle shift behind the guard throws the results of the Pitcher. assignment of catcher
is as follows:
- Keep the punch bunt
- Keep the home plate
- Throw the ball to first base, second base, third base, and keep the rear base of the I
4. Tactics and Strategy Games Softballl
An effort or strategy of a team that implemented in the game in order to gain the victory called tactics. Two kinds of tactics are well known in the softball game, the tactics of attack and defense tactics
. A. Assault Tactics
This tactic is used when the team into squads hitter. This tactic was structured so that the team can beat the bat well and get back to home base perfectly. following an attack tactics used in the game of softball.
- Punch without swinging (sacrifice bunt).
- Hit and run (hit and run)
- Steal base
- Blow drift (sacrifice fly)
b. Pattern defense (defensive strategy)
Defense strategy is basically a strategy or effort from the field for the last squad of guards break or deflect an opponent's attack with a deadly road runner or hitter with the following path:
- Men-tick base
- Men-tick opponent
- Throw the ball to the pitcher (strike)
- Catch the ball
c. Position custody
guard position basically there are three kinds, namely deep position, close position, and the medium position, while the defense strategy, among others:
- Shutting down with certainty.
- Turning off more than once.
- Dead forced.
- Mastering runners.
5. Refereeing and Softball Game Rules
Umpireadalah leader role in a softball game. Umpire given absolute authority to enforce the rules and play the game. besides, Umpirejuga have the authority to order a player, coach, captain, manager to execute or prohibit and punish according to his judgment is not in accordance with the applicable regulations.
- Responsibility Umpire
liability and broad authority in all aspects. He would take a position in any part of the field that he thought most appropriate to carry out its duties.
- Substitution Umpire
as long as the game is still going Umpiretidak can be replaced, even if both teams agree, except when he was sick and unable to perform their duties.
- Umpire Decision
Umpiretidak can protested the execution of his duty even though he made a mistake. to the extent not in conflict with any of the rules, Umpire decisions can not be contested.
- Old games
softball games in a long time determined by inning. one inning is becoming one guard and one team into squads hitter. in official games, old games are 7 innings
- Jumah player
every team in the softball game amounted to 9 people with the 5-7 reserve players
- Exchange of place
a change of place when the squad of guards to turn off the paddle shift 3 times-Value
Values ​​obtained when the batsman managed to get back into free space, upper punch or blow themselves friends.
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